If you’ve done yoga before, you’ve probably heard the term Veda or Vedic. “Veda” means “knowledge”. Vedic knowledge is also known as Apauruseya. That is, it is not human knowledge. This is knowledge from the gods.
There are six schools of thought in Vedic wisdom. Each system has a different philosophical perspective. These views are called darshanas. Each system was written by a different famous sage.
Here are six philosophical perspectives:
– Nyaya (logic)
– Vaisesika (Atomic Theory)
– Sankhya (analysis of matter and mind)
– Yoga (discipline of self-actualization)
– Mimamsa (Science of Merit)
– Vedanta (Science of God Fulfillment)
All these systems accept Vedic authority. They also all share the same basic principles.
They believe that the self is an individual spiritual being. It springs from the consciousness of nature and eternity.
The ego acquires a series of bodies. This is also called reincarnation. The ego suffers because of its contact with matter. Every system tries to end suffering.
Nyaya was created by the sage Gautama. It is considered the logical system of India. Nyaya is a prerequisite for all philosophical inquiry.
The Nyaya system states that there are sixteen knowable entities and four modes of knowledge.
Through this system, people can understand reality. This understanding will help them gain salvation.
Nyaya analyzes nature. It evaluates knowledge sources. It attempts to distinguish valid knowledge from invalid knowledge.
When one attains right knowledge, one also attains liberation. Mastering these logic skills will help on this journey. With sanity, you can escape the pain of everyday life.
The ultimate goal of the Nyaya system is liberation. It seeks to end all pain and suffering.
Reality Study of the Sixteen Padarthas of Nyaya
Reality Study of the Sixteen Padarthas of Nyaya
#1 Pramana – The Four Sources of Effective Knowledge
Pramana describes four ways of receiving knowledge.
– Pratyaksa (perception)
– Anumana (reasoning)
– Upmana (comparison)
– Zabda (Testimony)
This philosophy divides knowledge into two categories. There is Anubhava and Smrti.
These are also known as experiential knowledge and memory.
Empirical knowledge can be acquired through the four pramanas. Memory originates in a person’s mind. Memory also depends on experiential knowledge.
There is valid knowledge and invalid knowledge or Prama and Aprama. Aprama can be divided into three categories:
– Samsaya (doubt)
– Bhrama (flawed perception)
– Tarka (Assumption Argument)
Nyaya understands true knowledge. It always corresponds to the nature of its object. True knowledge is knowing the true nature of things. True knowledge can bring success. But wrong knowledge makes you helpless. It can lead to failure and disappointment.
#2 Prameya – The Twelve Objects of Knowledge
Prameya – The Twelve Objects of Knowledge
Prameya is the object of knowledge. It is also translated as “knowable”. There are twelve cognitive objects.
– Atman (ego)
– relic (body)
– Indriyas (five senses)
– Artha (sense object)
– Buddhi (knowledge)
– Manas (spiritual)
– Pravrtti (event)
– Dosa (Mental Defect)
– Pretyabhava (Rebirth)
– Phala (fruit of deeds)
– Dukha (Pain)
– Apavarga (liberation)
#3 Samsaya – Doubt
Samsaya – Doubt
Reincarnation is a state of doubt. Thoughts waver between conflicting views. But it always affects a single object. When in doubt, there are two different views. But neither offers certainty.
#4 Prayojana – Aiming
No one can act without a purpose or goal. It does not matter whether this goal is fully understood or not. You have to act to get what you want. Sometimes they take action to get rid of what they don’t need. These objects inspire your own activities.
#5 Drstanta – Example
Drstanta – Example
A general fact can be illustrated with an example. This also helps with the argument. This is an important aspect of the argument. This is acceptable to both parties. This is not in dispute.
#6 Siddhanta – Teaching
Teachings are indisputable truths. It is the basis of the whole theory. It is also present in every philosophical system. Teachings are accepted as truth. It can come from direct experience or logic and reasoning.
#7 The Five Avayavas – Building Blocks of the Conclusion
Five Avayavas – Components of the Conclusion
Reasoning is an important source of correct knowledge. It contains five essential elements to determine correct knowledge.
– Pratijna (Statement)
– Udaharana (example)
– Upanaya (universal set)
– Nigamana (Conclusion)
#8 Tarka – Hypothetical Argument
All systems of Indian philosophy agree that thought creates confusion. It can misinterpret information when it is vague. Because of this, it is important to cleanse your mind before attempting to understand.
Tarka is a process of questioning and cross-questioning. It leads to a specific conclusion. Tarka is a guess. It can be used to gain effective knowledge.
Tarka is a great tool for analyzing general statements. It can distinguish valid knowledge from invalid knowledge.
#9 Nirnaya – Conclusion
Nirnaya – Conclusion
Certain knowledge must be obtained legally. To understand an established truth, one must use recognized and legitimate sources of knowledge.